Amber Laurin's Blog

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Chapter 10 June 24, 2010

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:38 pm

Chapter 10: Conflict Management: Dealing with Issues, Risks, and Crises

The key components of strategic conflict management are :

  • Strategic: for the purpose of achieving particular objectives
  • Management: planned, deliberate action
  • Competition: striving for the same object, position, prize, as others
  • Conflict: sharp disagreements or opposition resulting in a direct, overt threat of attack from another entity.

Issues management is a proactive and systematic approach to (1) predict problems, (2) anticipate threats, (3) minimize surprise, (4) resolve issues, and (5) prevent crises.

How to communicate during a crisis:

  • Put the public first.
  • take responsibility.
  • Be honest.
  • Never say, “No comment.”
  • Designate a single spokesperson.
  • Set up a central  information center.
  • Provide a constant flow of information.
  • Be familiar with media needs and deadlines.
  • Be accessible.
  • Monitor news coverage and telephone inquiries.
  • Communicate with key politics.

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 9

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:24 pm

Chapter 9: Public Opinion and Persuasion

Opinion Leaders as Catalyst:

Opinion leaders –  people who are knowledgeable and articulate about specific issues.  Described by sociologist as (1) highly interested in a subject or issue, (2) better informed on an issue than the average person, (3) avid consumers of mass media, (4) early adopters of new ideas, and (5) good organizers who can get other people to take action.

2 types of leaders:

formal opinion leaders –  because of their positions as elected officials, presidents of companies, or heads of membership groups.

informal opinion leaders are those who have clout with peers because of some special characteristic.

Persuasion can be used to (1) change or neutralize hostile opinions, (2) crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes, and (3) conserve favorable opinions.   The most difficult persuasive task is to turn hostile opinion into favorable ones.

Source Credibility:  A message is more believable to the intended audience if the source has credibility.

3 factors of source credibility:

  1. Expertise. 
  2. Sincerity
  3. Charisma


All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 8

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:14 pm

Chapter 8: Evaluation

The basic evaluation questions that any practitioner should ask:

  • Was the activity or program adequately planned?
  • Did the recipients of the message understand it?
  • How could the program strategy have been more effective?
  • Were all primary and secondary audiences reached?
  • Was the desired organizational objective achieved?
  • What unforseen circumstances affected the success of the program or activity?
  • Did the program or activity fall within the budget set for it?
  • What steps can be taken to improve the success of similar future activities?

Different forms of measurement of message exposure:

Media Impressions: the potential audience reached by a periodical, a broadcast program, or an internet Website.

Hits on the Internet: THe number of people reached via an organization’s World Wide Web site or homepage.

Advertising Equivalency (AVE): To calculate the value of message exposure, this can be done by converting stories int he regular news columns or on the air into equivalent advertising cost. 

Systematic Tracking:  Computer software and databases can now be used to analyze the content of media placements by such variables as market penetration, type of publication, tone of coverage, sources quoted, and mention of key copy points. 

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 7

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:06 pm

Chapter 7: Communication

James Grunig, proffesor emeritus of public relations at University of Maryland, listed these five possible objectives for a communicator:

  1. Message exposure.  PR personnel provide materials to the mass media and disseminate other messages through controlled media.
  2. Accurate dissemination of the message.  The basic information often filtered by media gatekeepers, remains intact as it is transmitted through  various media.
  3. Acceptance of the message.  Based on its view of reality, the audience not only retains the message, but accepts it as valid.
  4. Attitude change.  The audience not only believes the message, but makes a verbal or mental commitment to change behavior as a result of the message.
  5. Change in overt behavior.  Members of the audience actually change their current behavior or purchase the product and use it.


Writing for clarity:

  • Clarity and simplicity of message are enhanced by the use of symbols, acronyms, and slogans
  • Avoid jargon
  • Avoid cliches and hype words
  • Avoid euphemisms
  • Avoid discriminatory language

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


T.O.W 5 June 17, 2010

Filed under: PRCA 2330,TOWS — amberlaurin @ 10:12 am

For this weeks topic I will be discussing my one week of twitter.  I had never used twitter prior to this class but I learned a lot during this week.  The most common assumption of non-twitter users is that twitter is comparable to facebook status’.  This could not be more wrong.  Twitter updates are more professional and often include a link to a blog, or website with interesting information.  I learned a lot about PR by following a list of a PR professionals provided by Barbara Nixon.  I also followed several celebrities, and news sources.  I retweeted several of my fellow classmates as well as a couple PR professionals throughout the week. 

The main thing that surprised me about twitter was how close I felt to the people I followed.  I will use twitter to further network and hopefully one day to make connections and enter the PR field.  At first I didn’t think I would like twitter and thought it would be a hassle, but after this week I think I will continue to use it.  I downloaded it on my phone so checking twitter is very easy, and once you get the hang of it actively participating is easy as well. 

One thing I would like are suggestions of interesting people to follow.  So if you are reading this post please comment!


T.O.W 4

Filed under: PRCA 2330,TOWS — amberlaurin @ 9:57 am

For this week’s TOW I watched two short interviews with  PR professionals. 

            The first interview of  Martin Waxman, the president and president and co-founder of Palette Public Relations Inc., from  Toronto, Canada.    When he first began his agency the core value was media.  He explained that the three pillars of his agency are 1) simplicity 2) energy 3) integrity.  Instead of writing a blog, Mr. Waxman does a weekly podcast.  He gave a few very good insights to what agencies want to see in future employees which are to understand traditional media relations and to have an understanding of social media. I learned a lot from the interview with Mr. Waxman.

            The next interview I watched was of a man by the name of Kneale Mann who is also from Canada.  He explained the main difference between private and public sectors.  Including that private sectors allow him to have the opportunity to do the overall business strategy of the company and public sectors deal more with just marketing and social media.

            Being new to blogging I found his tips and advice on blogging very helpful. He said that in order to get started blogging and become a better blogger you must just start writing and eventually you will evolve into a seasoned blogger.  He also said when you do not know what to talk about in your blog find something that interests you and make that as your main focus for you blog.  Visit Mr.Mann’s Blog


Chapter 6 June 11, 2010

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 10:57 am

Chapter 6: Program Planning

Glen broom and David Dozier say in their text Using Public Relations Research, “Strategic planning is deciding where you want to be in the future adn how to get there.  It sets the organization’s direction proactively, avoiding ‘drift’ and rountine repetition of activities.” 

A program plan is either a bfrief outline or an extensive document identifying what is to be done and how. PR firms prepare these for client approval and there is a joint consultation about budgets, strategies, and tactical communication tools.

Public relations plans include eight basic elements:

  1. Situation
  2. Objectives
  3. Audience
  4. Strategy
  5. Tactics
  6. Calendar/timetable
  7. Budget
  8. Evaluation


All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition.