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Chapter 14 July 7, 2010

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 3:39 am

Chapter 14 News Releases

News releases can be found on newspapers, broadcast stations, and magazines. Press releases are generally written in inverted pyramid style which helps the editor find interesting facts within the first three lines. It also helps editors cut stories from the bottom and helps the readers out so they don’t have to spend a lot of time reading the newspaper.

News releases:

  • news releases are not paid advertising.
  • they are judged solely on their news worthiness, timeliness, and interest to readers.
  • write them as if someone is actually talking.
  • focus on the news, not on your company.
  • tie your current announcement with current news or trends.
  • follow the AP Stylebook format.

Before you write ask yourself…

  • What is the key message?
  • Who is the primary audience?
  • What benefit or reward does the audience gain?
  • What objective does the release serve? (increased sales, enhance reputation, increased attendance at an event?)

The basic elements of a media kit are

  1. The main news release
  2. A news feature about the development or the product or something similar
  3. Facts sheets on the product, organization, or event
  4. Background information
  5. Photos and drawings with captions
  6. Biographical material on the spokesperson or chief executives
  7. Some basic brochures

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 12

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 3:33 am

Chapter 12: Public Relations and the Law

Defamation – the combination of libel (a printed falsehood about someone) and slander (an oral falsehood about someone.)

copyrights – protection of creative work from unauthorized use.  Under current law, a work is automatically copyrighted the moment it is fixed in tangible form.  It does not have to carry a notice of copyright.  Registration is not a condition of copyright protection. A copyright protects original material for the life of the creator plus 70 years for individual works and 95 years from publications for copyrights held by corporations.

Copyright issues on the internet:

  • Original materials in digital form are still protected by copyright laws on the internet and the World Wide Web.
  • Copyrighted material of others should not be posted on the internet unless specific permission is granted.

Invasion of privacy is an area of law that particularly applies to employees of an organization.  Public relations staff must be particularly sensitive to the issues of privacy in at least four areas:

  • Employee newsletters
  • Photo releases
  • Product publicity and advertising
  • Media inquiries about employees

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 11 July 5, 2010

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 8:44 am

Chapter 11: Reaching a Multicultural and Diverse Audience

Generalizations made about audiences today:

  • diversity is the most significant aspect of the mass audience in the United States
  • the international audience for public relations has expanded swiftly
  • technology can be used to segment the mass audience and compile related valuable information
  • the public is increasingly visually oriented and seems to have a shorter attention span
  • audiences are increasingly taking controls of information streams
  • fervent support is generated for single issues
  • heavy emphasis is placed on personality and celebrity
  • strong distrust of authority and suspicion of conspiracy can arise from sensationalistic investigative reporting

Youth and young adults

  • Are an important demographic for marketers because they influence their parents buying decisions, have their own purchasing power, and will mature into adult consumers.
  • Have greater autonomy and decision-making power within the family.
  • Spend one-third of their lives online.

Baby Boomers

  • Grew up in an age of prosperity and continue to have few qualms about spending on consumer goods instead of saving for retirement.
  • Concerned about health care, insurance, retirement planning, personal investing, and other issues.
  • Known as the “rather active” group for being a socially conscious bunch.


  • Men and women 65 years or older.
  • Often less easily convinced than young adults
  • Poor customers for household goods, eat out frequently and do much gift buying
  • Travel frequently

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 10 June 24, 2010

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:38 pm

Chapter 10: Conflict Management: Dealing with Issues, Risks, and Crises

The key components of strategic conflict management are :

  • Strategic: for the purpose of achieving particular objectives
  • Management: planned, deliberate action
  • Competition: striving for the same object, position, prize, as others
  • Conflict: sharp disagreements or opposition resulting in a direct, overt threat of attack from another entity.

Issues management is a proactive and systematic approach to (1) predict problems, (2) anticipate threats, (3) minimize surprise, (4) resolve issues, and (5) prevent crises.

How to communicate during a crisis:

  • Put the public first.
  • take responsibility.
  • Be honest.
  • Never say, “No comment.”
  • Designate a single spokesperson.
  • Set up a central  information center.
  • Provide a constant flow of information.
  • Be familiar with media needs and deadlines.
  • Be accessible.
  • Monitor news coverage and telephone inquiries.
  • Communicate with key politics.

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 9

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:24 pm

Chapter 9: Public Opinion and Persuasion

Opinion Leaders as Catalyst:

Opinion leaders –  people who are knowledgeable and articulate about specific issues.  Described by sociologist as (1) highly interested in a subject or issue, (2) better informed on an issue than the average person, (3) avid consumers of mass media, (4) early adopters of new ideas, and (5) good organizers who can get other people to take action.

2 types of leaders:

formal opinion leaders –  because of their positions as elected officials, presidents of companies, or heads of membership groups.

informal opinion leaders are those who have clout with peers because of some special characteristic.

Persuasion can be used to (1) change or neutralize hostile opinions, (2) crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes, and (3) conserve favorable opinions.   The most difficult persuasive task is to turn hostile opinion into favorable ones.

Source Credibility:  A message is more believable to the intended audience if the source has credibility.

3 factors of source credibility:

  1. Expertise. 
  2. Sincerity
  3. Charisma


All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 8

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:14 pm

Chapter 8: Evaluation

The basic evaluation questions that any practitioner should ask:

  • Was the activity or program adequately planned?
  • Did the recipients of the message understand it?
  • How could the program strategy have been more effective?
  • Were all primary and secondary audiences reached?
  • Was the desired organizational objective achieved?
  • What unforseen circumstances affected the success of the program or activity?
  • Did the program or activity fall within the budget set for it?
  • What steps can be taken to improve the success of similar future activities?

Different forms of measurement of message exposure:

Media Impressions: the potential audience reached by a periodical, a broadcast program, or an internet Website.

Hits on the Internet: THe number of people reached via an organization’s World Wide Web site or homepage.

Advertising Equivalency (AVE): To calculate the value of message exposure, this can be done by converting stories int he regular news columns or on the air into equivalent advertising cost. 

Systematic Tracking:  Computer software and databases can now be used to analyze the content of media placements by such variables as market penetration, type of publication, tone of coverage, sources quoted, and mention of key copy points. 

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition


Chapter 7

Filed under: PRCA 2330,Reading Notes — amberlaurin @ 12:06 pm

Chapter 7: Communication

James Grunig, proffesor emeritus of public relations at University of Maryland, listed these five possible objectives for a communicator:

  1. Message exposure.  PR personnel provide materials to the mass media and disseminate other messages through controlled media.
  2. Accurate dissemination of the message.  The basic information often filtered by media gatekeepers, remains intact as it is transmitted through  various media.
  3. Acceptance of the message.  Based on its view of reality, the audience not only retains the message, but accepts it as valid.
  4. Attitude change.  The audience not only believes the message, but makes a verbal or mental commitment to change behavior as a result of the message.
  5. Change in overt behavior.  Members of the audience actually change their current behavior or purchase the product and use it.


Writing for clarity:

  • Clarity and simplicity of message are enhanced by the use of symbols, acronyms, and slogans
  • Avoid jargon
  • Avoid cliches and hype words
  • Avoid euphemisms
  • Avoid discriminatory language

All information in this post can be found in Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics 9th Edition